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Falanqaynta aragtida ee tijaabada xasiloonida aerosol ee ay keentay qaacidada Arrhenius

Falanqaynta aragtida ee tijaabada xasiloonida aerosol ee ay keentay qaacidada Arrhenius

Habka lagama maarmaanka ah ee alaabtayada aerosol-ka ah ee lagu bilaabayo waa in la sameeyo tijaabada xasiloonida, laakiin waxaan ogaan doonaa in inkasta oo tijaabada xasiloonida ay dhaaftay, haddana waxaa jiri doona heerar kala duwan oo ah daadinta daxalka ee wax soo saarka ballaaran, ama xitaa dhibaatooyinka tayada badeecada.Markaa weli macno ma inoo leedahay in aan samayno tijaabada xasilloonida?
Caadi ahaan waxaan ka hadalnaa 50 ℃ saddex bilood oo ah tijaabada xasiloonida waxay u dhigantaa laba sano oo wareeg ah oo tijaabo aragti ah heerkulka qolka, markaa halkee buu ka yimaadaa qiimaha aragtida?Qaacido xusid mudan ayaa loo baahan yahay in halkan lagu xuso: qaacidada Arrhenius.Isla'egta Arrhenius waa erey kiimiko ah.Waa qaacido la taaban karo ee xiriirka ka dhexeeya heerka joogtada ah ee falcelinta kiimikada iyo heerkulka.Dhaqan badan ayaa muujinaya in caanahan aan kaliya lagu dabaqi karin falcelinta gaaska, falcelinta wajiga dareeraha iyo inta badan falcelinta catalytic-ka badan ee wejiyada badan.
Qorista qaacidada (jibbaar)

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K waa heerka joogtada ah, R waa gaaska molarka ah ee joogtada ah, T waa heerkulbeegga heerkulbeegga, Ea waa tamarta firfircoonida muuqata, iyo A waa qodobka hore ee jibbaarada (sidoo kale loo yaqaan 'frequency factor).

Waa in la ogaadaa in Arrhenius 'format empirical' uu u maleynayo in tamarta firfircoonida Ea loo arko inay tahay mid joogto ah oo ka madaxbannaan heerkulka, taas oo la socota natiijooyinka tijaabada ah ee heerkul gaar ah.Si kastaba ha ahaatee, heerkulka ballaaran ee kala duwan ama falcelinta qalafsan awgeed, LNK iyo 1/T maaha xariiq toosan oo wanaagsan.Waxay muujineysaa in tamarta firfircoonida ay la xiriirto heerkulka iyo qaaciddada empirical Arrhenius ma khuseyso qaar ka mid ah falcelinta adag.

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Miyaynu weli raaci karnaa caanaha Arrhenius ee hawada hawada?Iyadoo ku xiran xaaladda, intooda badan waa la raacaa, iyada oo laga reebo dhowr ka reeban, oo la bixiyo, dabcan, in "tamar firfircoonida Ea" ee alaabta aerosol ay tahay mid deggan oo joogto ah oo ka madax banaan heerkulka.
Marka loo eego isla'egta Arrhenius, kiimikaaddeeda arrimaha saameeya waxa ka mid ah dhinacyada soo socda:
(1) Cadaadiska: falcelinta kiimikaad ee ku lug leh gaaska, marka xaaladaha kale aysan isbeddelin (marka laga reebo mugga), cadaadiska kordhiya, taas oo ah, mugga ayaa hoos u dhacaya, xoojinta falcelinta ayaa kordha, tirada molecules-ka firfircoon ee mugga halbeegga ayaa kordha, tirada shilalka waxtarka leh ee halbeegkiiba wuu kordhaa, heerka falcelintana wuu kordhiyaa;Haddii kale, way yaraanaysaa.Haddii mugga uu yahay mid joogto ah, heerka falcelintu wuxuu ahaanayaa mid joogto ah cadaadiska (adigoo ku daraya gaas aan ka qayb qaadan fal-celinta kiimikada).Sababtoo ah feejignaantu isma beddesho, tirada molecules-ka firfircoon mug kasta isma beddesho.Laakiin mugga joogtada ah, haddii aad ku darto fal-celinta, mar labaad, waxaad cadaadis saaraysaa, oo aad kordhisaa diiradda falcelinta, waxaad kordhisaa heerka.
(2) Heerkulka: ilaa inta heerkulku kor u kaco, unugyada falcelinta waxay helayaan tamar, sidaas darteed qayb ka mid ah unugyada tamarta hooseeya ee asalka ah waxay noqdaan unugyo firfircoon, kordhinta boqolkiiba molecules firfircoon, kordhinta tirada shilalka waxtarka leh, si fal-celinta heerka korodhka (sababta ugu weyn).Dabcan, sababtoo ah korodhka heerkulka, heerka dhaqdhaqaaqa molecular waa la dedejiyey, iyo tirada isku dhacyada molecular ee reactants per time unit waa la kordhiyaa, falcelinta waa la dedejin doonaa si waafaqsan (sababta labaad).
(3) Catalyst: Isticmaalka kicinta togan waxay yarayn kartaa tamarta looga baahan yahay falcelinta, si ay unugyadu u noqdaan unugyo firfircoon, si weyn u wanaajiya boqolleyda molecules fal-celiska mugga unugga, sidaas darteed waxay kordhineysaa heerka falcelinta kumanaan jeer.Kataliye taban ayaa lid ku ah.
(4) Xoog saarida: Marka xaaladaha kale ay isku mid yihiin, kordhinta diirada falcelinta waxay kordhisaa tirada unugyada firfircoon ee mugga halbeegga, sidaas darteed kordhinta isku dhaca waxtarka leh, heerka falcelinta ayaa kordha, laakiin boqolkiiba molecules-ka firfircooni isma beddelo.
Qodobbada kiimikaad ee afarta dhinac ee kor ku xusan waxay si fiican u sharxi karaan kala soocidayada goobaha daxalka (wajiga gaaska daxalka, daxalka wejiga dareeraha iyo daxalka interface):
1) Wajiga gaaska daxalka, inkasta oo mugga uusan isbeddelin, cadaadiska ayaa kordha.Marka heerkulku kor u kaco, firfircoonida hawada (oxygen), biyaha iyo kicinta ayaa kordha, tirada shilalka ayaa kordha, sidaas darteed daxalka wajiga gaaska ayaa sii kordhaya.Sidaa darteed, xulashada habboonaanta gaaska ku-salaysan biyaha-ku-salaysan ka-hortagga miridhku waa mid aad muhiim u ah
2) Daxalka wejiga dareeraha ah, ay sabab u tahay kicinta ee diiradda kordhay, wasakh qaar ka mid ah laga yaabaa (sida hydrogen ions, iwm) in xiriir daciif ah iyo alaabta baakadaha dardar shil soo saaray daxalka, sidaas doorashada wakiilka antirust wajiga dareere waa in si taxadar leh loo tixgeliyo. oo lagu daray pH iyo alaabta ceeriin.
3) Daxalka Interface, oo ay weheliso cadaadiska, kicinta kicinta, hawada (oxygen), biyaha, soo-saareyaasha, wasakhda (sida ions hydrogen, iwm.) falcelin dhammaystiran, taasoo keentay daxalka interface, xasilloonida iyo naqshadeynta nidaamka qaacidada ayaa ah mid aad muhiim u ah. .

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Dib ugu noqo su'aashii hore, waa maxay sababta ay mararka qaarkood u shaqeyso tijaabada xasilloonida, laakiin weli waxaa jira cillad marka ay timaado wax soo saarka ballaaran?Tixgeli waxyaabaha soo socda:
1: nashqadeynta xasiloonida nidaamka qaacidada, sida isbeddelka Ph, xasilloonida emulsification, xasilloonida saturation iyo wixii la mid ah
2: wasakhda ku jirta alaabta ceeriin ayaa jirta, sida isbedel ku yimaada ion hydrogen iyo ions chloride
3: xasiloonida dufcadaha alaabta ceeriin, ph inta u dhaxaysa dufcadaha alaabta ceeriin, cabbirka weecasho content iyo wixii la mid ah
4: xasiloonida gasacadaha hawada iyo valves iyo alaabta kale ee baakadaha, xasiloonida dhumucda lakabka daasadda, beddelka alaabta ceeriin oo ay sababtay kor u kaca qiimaha alaabta ceeriin
5: Si taxadar leh u falanqeyso cillad kasta oo ku jirta tijaabada xasilloonida, xitaa haddii ay tahay isbeddel yar, samee go'aan macquul ah adigoo isticmaalaya isbarbardhigga tooska ah, xoojinta microscopic iyo hababka kale (tani waa awoodda ugu yar ee warshadaha aerosol ee gudaha hadda)
Sidaa darteed, xasilloonida tayada badeecaddu waxay ku lug leedahay dhammaan dhinacyada, waxaana lagama maarmaan ah in la helo nidaam tayo leh oo dhammaystiran si loo xakameeyo dhammaan dekedda silsiladda sahayda (oo ay ku jiraan heerarka wax iibsiga, heerarka cilmi-baarista iyo horumarinta, heerarka kormeerka, heerarka wax soo saarka, iwm.) si loo buuxiyo heerka tayada. istaraatijiyad, si loo hubiyo xasiloonida ugu dambeysa iyo waafaqsanaanta alaabtayada.
Nasiib darro, waxa aan rabno in aan la wadaagno hadda waa in tijaabada xasilloonida aysan dammaanad qaadi karin in aysan jirin wax dhibaato ah oo ku yimaada baaritaanka xasilloonida, wax soo saarka ballaaranina waa in uusan wax dhibaato ah la kulmin.Isku darka tixgelinnada kor ku xusan iyo baaritaanka xasilloonida ee badeecad kasta, waxaan ka hortagi karnaa inta badan khatarta qarsoon.Weli waxaa jira dhibaatooyin qaar oo sugaya inaan sahaminno, ogaanno oo aan xallinno.Mid ka mid ah waxyaabaha soo jiidashada hawada hawada ayaa ah in dad badan laga filayo inay xalliyaan waxyaabo badan oo qarsoon.


Waqtiga boostada: Juun-23-2022
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